UC Lindcove Research and Extension Center. That brings to 29 the number of locations in the central San Joaquin Valley, from Bakersfield to Dinuba, where Asian citrus psyllids have been trapped.
Perhaps still more unsettling is the fact that reproducing populations of ACP have been found in urban areas in Tulare County, confirming that the pest is established in a county where farmers produce citrus valued at more than $1 billion annually.
“The psyllid is here, it's established, but still at low levels,” said Beth Grafton-Cardwell, director of the Lindcove REC and UC Cooperative Extension citrus entomology specialist. “We need to be very aggressive and treat it and eliminate populations as best we can.”
Asian citrus psyllids are a serious concern for California citrus producers because they spread Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. The disease causes tree decline, production of small, bitter fruit and eventually tree death. There is no cure once a tree is infected.
Around the world, once ACP arrives, HLB soon follows. Such was the case in Florida. ACP was first found in 1998, the disease followed in 2005, and by 2008 it had spread throughout the state.
“They allowed the psyllid and the disease to spread on nursery plants,” Grafton-Cardwell said. “Here, it's a different situation. We are taking many measures to reduce psyllid populations and limit their spread around the state in order to buy researchers time to find long-term solutions for HLB disease."
To date, only one HLB-infected tree has been found in California, a multi-grafted backyard tree in Hacienda Heights. It was quickly removed and destroyed. Other trees may be infected, but not yet detected. It will take a tree with HLB about a year to show visual symptoms of the disease. One goal of UC research is to identify a way to detect HLB more rapidly.
For example, scientists at UC Davis are refining a mobile chemical sensor that can detect diseased citrus trees by sniffing their volatile organic compounds. Another team of scientists is looking for changes in citrus trees' metabolism when infected with HLB.
Citrus growers can help by regularly monitoring their trees for signs of ACP and, when treating for other pests, use insecticides that are known to be effective against ACP. A chart of effective pesticides is on the interactive Asian Citrus Psyllid Distribution and Management website.
The website also contains information for residents who have citrus trees in their landscapes. Photos of the adult and juvenile insects, the distinctive waxy tubules left behind when they feed, and citrus leaves from and HLB-infected tree can aid in determining whether home trees are infested.
An initiative to manage endemic and invasive pests and diseases is part of the UC Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Strategic Vision 2025.
Do you know the difference between a yam and a sweetpotato?
“A true yam is not grown in the U.S., it's found in South America,” says Jason Tucker, vice president of the California Sweetpotato Council. Real yams have dry, dark flesh and are not the same plant species as sweetpotatoes, he explained.
“A yam is a sweetpotato, at least for those grown in the U.S.”, says Scott Stoddard, UC Cooperative Extension advisor in Merced County. “The rest of country has predominately just one type of sweetpotato, with tan skin and orange flesh, but in California, we have four marketing classes.”
The four kinds of California sweetpotatoes are
- Jewell, with tan skin and orange flesh
- Jersey, with light yellow skin and white flesh
- Oriental, with purple skin and white flesh
- Garnet, with red skin and deep orange flesh
The red-skinned sweetpotatoes are what many people in the United States call yams.
The California Sweetpotato Council spells sweetpotato as one word because it isn't a potato, it is a different plant species.
However, estimates suggest that growing crops to produce that much biofuel would require 40 to 50 million acres of land, an area roughly equivalent in size to the entire state of Nebraska.
“If we convert cropland that now produces food into fuel production, what will that do to our food supply?” asks Maggi Kelly, UC Cooperative Extension specialist and the director of the UC Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Statewide IGIS Program. “If we begin growing fuel crops on land that isn't currently in agriculture, will that come at the expense of wildlife habitat and open space, clean water and scenic views?”
Kelly and UC Berkeley graduate student Sarah Lewis are conducting research to better understand land-use options for growing biofuel feed stock. They used a literature search, in which the results of multiple projects conducted around the world are reviewed, aggregated and compared.
“When food vs. fuel land questions are raised in the literature, authors often suggest fuel crops be planted on ‘marginal land,'” Kelly said. “But what does that actually mean? Delving into the literature, we found there was no standard definition of ‘marginal land.'”
Kelly and Lewis' literature review focused on projects that used geospatial technology to explicitly map marginal, abandoned or degraded lands specifically for the purpose of planting bioenergy crops. They narrowed their search to 21 papers from 2008 to 2013, and among them they found no common working definition of marginal land.
“We have to be careful when we talk about what is marginal. We have to be explicit about our definitions, mapping and modeling,” Kelly said. “In our lab, we are trying to understand the landscape under multiple lenses and prioritize different uses and determine how management regimes impact the land.”
The research report, titled Mapping the Potential for Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands: Differences in Definitions, Data and Models across Scales, was published in the International Journal for Geo-Information.
An initiative to improve energy security and green technologies is part of the UC Division of Agriculture and Naturalist Resources Strategic Vision 2025.
Australian Rural Radio. Jasper interviewed Louise Ferguson, UC Cooperative Extension specialist and director of the UC Fruit and Nut Research and Information Center.
"Whether it's good or bad, in California we've become accustomed to a steady water supply though our catchments, dams and aqueducts that deliver water to the (Central) Valley," Ferguson said. "In the past 3 or 4 years of drought, we've become more dependent on wells, what you're always dependent upon here in Australia."
She predicted that, in the next three to five years, California will see a significant decrease in tree crops as a result.
"In California, up till now, we did not have groundwater use regulations," she said. "The increase in wells very shortly will lead to regulations, both quantity and quality. Meaning how much you can draw out and how much nitrogen you can use in your fertilization program."
Jasper also interviewed Almond Board of California president and chief executive officer Richard Waycott.
"As an industry we've been doing deficit irrigation research, and applying water efficiency research across our industry for many years," Waycott said. "The drought is caused by Mother Nature. All agriculture needs water, and our growers are responsible with the water they use."
Studies have shown that we develop our eating habits early in life, according to lead author Lenna Ontai, UC Cooperative Extension specialist in the Department of Human and Community Development at UC Davis.
“We know that it is not enough to just teach parents what to do. We have to support them in how they can take that knowledge home and use it effectively,” said Ontai.
Healthy, Happy Families provides parents with practical information about how children develop and tips for raising a healthy and happy child. It includes fun and easy activities for parents to do with their preschool-aged children to promote healthful eating.
Children who spend more time with their parents tend to be happier and learn better, the authors write. They recommend eating together as a family to help children learn to make healthy food choices. Letting children help plan and prepare meals helps them develop new skills. Children also learn social skills during family meals such as talking and listening.
For cooking with kids, they recommend
- Explaining why it's important to wash our hands.
- Setting up an area for the child that is away from the stove and oven.
- Using a low table or safe step stool.
- Letting the child taste.
- Using child-sized utensils.
- And most of all, making it fun!
In a fun way, parents can create a healthy learning environment and teach their children healthful habits that will last a lifetime.
“Helping parents tune into their children's development and supporting positive interactions around food makes a big difference as children grow,” Ontai said.
The Healthy, Happy Families workbook is available in packages of 10 for $15 in English and is now available in Spanish as Familia sana, familia feliz in Spanish. There is also a companion publication for teachers called the Healthy, Happy Families for Teachers curriculum. All three publications can be ordered at http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu.